### URDHVA TIRYAGBHYAM

**Urdhva – tiryagbhyam**is the general formula applicable to all cases of multiplication and also in the division of a large number by another large number. It means “Vertically and cross wise.”

Multiplication of two 2 digit numbers.

Ex.1: Find the product 14 X 12

The symbols are operated from right to left .

Step i) :

Step ii) :

Step iii) :

Let us work another problem by placing the carried over digits under the first row and proceed.

Steps:

i) 4 X 6 = 24 : 2, the carried over digit is placed below the second digit.

ii) (3 X 6) + (4 x 1) = 18 + 4 = 22 ; 2, the carried over digit is placed below third digit.

iii) (2 X 6) + (3 X 1) + (4 X 3) = 12 + 3 + 12 = 27 ; 2, the carried over digit is placed below fourth digit.

iv) (2 X 1) + ( 3 X 3) = 2 + 9 = 11; 1, the carried over digit is placed below fifth digit.

v) ( 2 X 3 ) = 6.

vi) Respective digits are added.

General rule for a 3 digit by 3 digit multiplication:

## 3 Comments:

Thanks for sharing this.. It helps a lot but when cross multiplying the numbers and get a result of more than a hundred where you gonna place the remainder of 100+?

Thanks for sharing It helps a lot! But when cross multiplying the numbers and get a result of more than a hundred where you gonna place the remainder of 100+?

If the intermediate product is more than 100, you should push the upper numbers to next decimal value. Eg:

999

999

--------

12321

86468

121

--------

998001

1)9x9 = 81

2)9x9 + 9x9 = 162

3)9x9 + 9x9 + 9x9 = 243

4)9x9 + 9x9 = 162

5)9x9 = 81

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